JSPS Project report, March, 2007

Seismic faults and Civil-Infrastructures

CONTENTS

Preface

1

INTRODUCTION

1

 

 

 

2

DAMAGE TO FOUNDATIONS

2.1

BAUWEISHAN VIADUCT AND ITS RAMPS
Location: 23o 54f02hN, 120o 42f21hE
Earthquake: Sept. 23, 1999, ChiChi Earthquake, Taiwan, M=7.6

5

 

 

 

3

DAMAGE TO TUNNELS

25

 

3.1

TANNA TUNNEL
Location: 35o 6f14hN, 139o 0f55hE
Earthquake: Nov. 26, 1930, North-Izu Earthquake, Japan, M=7.2

25

 

3.2

INATORI TUNNEL
Location: 34o 46f20hN, 139o 1f53hE
Earthquake: Jan. 14, 1978, Off-Izu Oshima Earthquake, Japan, M=7.0

27

 

3.3

OUTLET TUNNEL OF 2nd KAKKONDA HYDROPOWER STATION
Location: 39o 46f49hN, 140o 56f48hE
Earthquake: Sept. 3, 1998, Mid-North Iwate Earthquake, Japan, M=6.1

30

 

3.4

INTAKE TUNNEL OF SHIHKANG DAM
Location: 24o 16f42hN, 120o 46f14hE
Earthquake: Sept. 23, 1999, ChiChi Earthquake, Taiwan, M=7.6

33

 

3.5

INTAKE TUNNEL OF OMIYA DAM
Location: 35o 13f46hN, 133o 22f39hE
Earthquake: Oct. 6, 2000, West Tottori Earthquake, Japan, M=7.3

34

 

3.6

UONUMA TUNNEL OF JOETSU SHINKANSEN RAILWAY
Location: 37o 17f19hN, 138o 51f43hE
Earthquake: Oct. 23, 2004, Chuetsu Earthquake, Japan, M=6.8

37

 

3.7

BERKELEY-HILL BART TUNNEL
Location: 37o 51f04hN, 127o 14f16hW
Earthquake: Cracking is due to continuous creeping movement of the Hayward fault.

45

 

3.8

BOLU TUNNEL
Location: 40o45f18hN, 31o27f04hE
Earthquake: August 17, 1999, Izmit Earthquake, Turkey, M=7.4

47

 

 

 

4

DAMAGE TO DAMS

 

 

4.1

SHIHKANG DAM
Location: 23o 54f02hN, 120o 42f21hE
Earthquake: Sept. 23, 1999, ChiChi Earthquake, Taiwan, M=7.6

49

 

 

 

5

LANDSLIDES/ LANDFORM CHANGES

 

 

5.1

TIGER HEAD HILL SLIDE
Location: 24o 07f52hN, 120o 44f18hE
Earthquake: Sept. 23, 1999, ChiChi Earthquake, Taiwan, M=7.6

61

 

5.2

LANDFORM CHANGES IN MID-NIIGATA REGION
Location: 7 km (North-South) ~ 11 km (East-West) area in Mid-Niigata with its center at 37o18f41hN, 138o53f03hE
Earthquake: Oct. 23, 2004, Chuetsu Earthquake, Japan, M=6.8

63

 

5.3

STRAINS INDUCED WITHIN SOILS NEAR FAULT RUPTURE PLANES
Location: 40o43f32hN, 29o49f02hE for Fig. 5.8(b) and 40o43f21hN, 29o50f55hE for Fig. 5.8(c)
Earthquake: August 17, 1999, Izmit Earthquake, Turkey, M=7.4

66

 

5.4

LONG LASTING LANDFORM CHANGES IN PAKISTAN
Location: 23o 54f02hN, 120o 42f21hE
Earthquake: Oct. 8, 2005, Kashmir Earthquake, Pakistan, M=7.6

67

 

 

 

6

INTENSE SHAKES

 

 

6.1

VELOCITY PULSES

69

 

6.2

DAMAGE TO QUAY WALLS
Kobe Port in the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake
Location: 34o 39f33hN, 135o 13f22hE for Port island and 34o 40f37hN, 135o 16f19hE for Rokko island
Earthquake: Jan. 17, 1995, Great Hanshin Earthquake, Japan, M=7.2, and Sakai Port in the 2000 West Tottori Earthquake
Location: Port island N35o 32f41h, E133o 14f55h for Station F-1493
Earthquake: Oct. 6, 2000, West Tottori Earthquake, Japan, M=7.3

71

 

6.3

ABDARREH VILLAGE, IRAN, IN THE 2002 CHANGUREH EARTHQUAKE
Location: 35o 47f43hN, 49o 01f16hE
Earthquake: June 22, 2002, Changureh Earthquake, Iran, M=6.4-6.5

73

 

6.4

BAM CITY, IRAN, IN THE 2003 BAM EARTHQUAKE
Location: 29o 06f18hN, 58o 21f31hE
Earthquake: Dec. 26, 2003, Bam Earthquake, Iran, M=6.6-6.6

80

 

 

 

7

FAULT PROVISIONED DESIGN EXAMPLES

 

 

7.1

MITIGATION MEASURES

89

 

7.2

WATER SUPPLY OF EAST BAY MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICT, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.

89

 

7.3

TOKYO, JAPAN ? SAKHALIN, RUSSIA PIPELINE
Location: off-shore, Shirako, Chiba, Japan

91

 

7.4

COUNTERMEASURES FOR SHINKANSEN (bullet train) STATION AND BRIDGE
Location: 34o 42f24hN, 135o 11f46hE

92

 

7.5

FREEWAY PROJECT SAN BERNARDINO, CALIFORNIA, 2002
Location: 34o 08f43hN, 117o 19f09hW

94

 

7.6

CLYDE DAM IN NEW ZEALAND
Location: 45o 10f47hS, 169o 18f19hE

96

 

7.7

FLEXIBLE ALASKAN PIPELINE
Location: 63o 23f00hN, 145o 44f00hE
Earthquake: Nov. 3, 2002, Denali Fault Earthquake, USA, M=7.9

98

 

 

8

KEY POINTS FOR RATIONAL DESIGNS

 

 

8.1

INTRODUCTION

101

 

8.2

SEQUENTIAL APPEARANCE OF THRUST FAULT RUPTURE PLANES

101

 

8.3

SOIL STRAIN PAPAMETER DETERMINING RESTRICTION LEVEL

104

 

8.4

SEQUENCE OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC SOIL DEFORMATIONS

105

 

8.5

ACTIVE LENGTH OF UNDERGROUND PIPES AND TUNNELS

107

Appendix 1

BOREHOLE DATA AT BAUWEISHAN

109